The cotton industry consumes a pile of water and emits significant greenhouse gases, but new research reveals that growing cotton in Africa exacts a smaller ecological price. Cotton Made in Africa commissioned Hamburg-based Systain to conduct an independent study as part of an Aid by Trade Foundation initiative to determine the carbon and water footprint of African smallholders. It turns out that their cotton plantations emit 70 percent less carbon dioxide and consume 18,000 liters less water per kilogram of cotton lint than conventional operations such as those in Pakistan.